Biotechnology is a branch of science which harneses the power of
Microorganisms to produce Metabolites of interest. They can be
classified as Primary Metabolities and Secondary Metabolites
metabolites are produced during the metabolism process of the
microorganism for various growth related functions. Microorganisms
produce a wide range of sustances essential for their growth such as
nucleic acids, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids,
antiobiotics and by-products of high energy yielding metabolism such as
ethanol, acetone and butanol.
During its growth, the
microorganism utilizes a wide range of nutrients
in the form of Carbon sources, Nitrogen Source, Inducers, Growth
factors etc. To assimilate these nutrients for its metabolism process,
they must be broken down into simpler molecules. It is during
this phase that the microorganism produces various Protein molecules
which catalyse the hydrolysis of the compounds.
These biologicals catalysts are
known as Enzymes.